ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Khaled Khleifat1,2, Haitham Qaralleh3, Mohammad Al-Limoun2, Moath Alqaraleh4, Maha N. Abu Hajleh5 , Rahaf Al-Frouhk2, Laila Al-Omari6, Rula Al Buqain7 and Saif M. Dmour8
1Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences, Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman, Jordan.
2Biology Department, College of Science, Mutah University, Al-Karak, Jordan.
3Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Science, Mutah University, Al-Karak, Jordan.
4Pharmacological and Diagnostic Research Center (PDRC), Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman 19328, Jordan.
5Department of Cosmetic Science, Pharmacological and Diagnostic Research Centre, Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences, Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Zip code (19328), Amman, Jordan.
6Department of Medical Laboratory, Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences, Zarqa University, Zarqa, Jordan.
7Cell Therapy Center, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.
8Department of Medical Analysis, Prince Aisha Bint Al-Hussein, Faculty of Nursing and Health Science, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Jordan.
Article Number: 7772 | © The Author(s). 2022
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2022;16(3):1722-1735.
Received: 19 April 2022 | Accepted: 28 May 2022 | Published online: 16 July 2022
Issue online: September 2022

Microbial antibiotic resistance is rapidly increasing as a result of overuse or misuse of antibiotics, as well as a lack of new, effective antibiotics. Alternative antimicrobial treatments, such as nanoparticles, and their potential for stronger synergetic effect when paired with other active chemicals, could be a viable option. This study is prepared to estimate the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) that have been synthesized using the biomass-free filtrate of Aspergillus flavus. The formation of AgNPs was reported by color changed to a dark brownish-black after 72 hours of incubation. The AgNPs surface plasmon resonance peak was indicated in the UV–Vis spectrum at 427 nm. The synthesis of AgNPs with a nanoparticle size of 10 to 35 nm was validated using transmission electron microscopy. The increase in folding area was calculated to detect the synergistic potential of the combined AgNPs with a broad range of conventional antibiotics. AgNPs have broad-spectrum activity against all strains tested. The most sensitive strain was Escherichia coli (11 mm), whereas the most resistant strain was Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as indicated by the lowest inhibition zone (7 mm). The lowest Minimum Inhibitory Concentration indicated was against K. pneumonia and Enterobacter cloacae (0.025 mg/mL, each), followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (0.05 mg/mL), E. coli and Shigella sp. (0.075 mg/mL, each), and then S. aureus (0.1 mg/mL). Notable synergy was reported between AgNPs and either ampicillin, erythromycin, ceftriaxone, vancomycin, azlocillin, or amoxicillin against S. aureus in the range between 29.3-fold to 8-fold. In addition, synergy was seen between AgNPs and either vancomycin, clindamycin, or erythromycin against P. aeruginosa (31.1-8.0-fold). Also, a maximum increase in IFA when erythromycin and vancomycin were synergized with AgNPs against E. cloacae was reported (IFA of 10.0 and 9.0, respectively). Similarly, AgNPs with either aztreonam or azlocillin against E. coli and amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, or ceftriaxone against Shigella sp. caused an increase in the fold area of inhibition of between 5.3-3.7-fold. This result may have an advantage in encouraging the use of combined AgNPS with conventional antibiotics in treating infectious diseases caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria.


AgNPs, Aspergillus flavus, Antibacterial, Synergy

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© The Author(s) 2022. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.