ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Mai Al-kaffas1 , Maha G. Haggag1, Shady M. Soliman2, Ahmed A. Ghalwash3 and Marwa Alkaffas4
1Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Cairo, Egypt.
2Department of Ophthalmology, Cornea Unit, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Cairo, Egypt.
3Department of Ophthalmology, Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Cairo, Egypt.
4Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.
Article Number: 7702 | © The Author(s). 2022
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2022;16(3):1714-1721.
Received: 23 March 2022 | Accepted: 06 June 2022 | Published online: 16 July 2022
Issue online: September 2022

Infectious keratitis continues to be a prominent cause of vision impairment worldwide through a variety of causes. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium that frequently causes vision-threatening microbial keratitis. P. aeruginosa contains a diverse array of virulence factors, including exoA, exoS, nan1, and lasB, some of which may contribute to its pathogenicity. Because the clinical characteristics of bacterial keratitis vary, making a quick differential diagnosis can be difficult, resulting in a delay in diagnosis and worse outcome. In this study, we performed multiplex polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of nan1, toxA, exoS, and lasB, and determine their association with distinct clinical presentations of P. aeruginosa-related keratitis. We also performed antibiotic susceptibility testing of the isolates. A total of 49 P. aeruginosa strains were obtained from individuals with keratitis between May 2021 and December 2021 from the Research Institute of Ophthalmology, Giza, Egypt. Results showed that lasB was most expressed gene (81.8%), followed by tox (63.6%) and exoS (31.8%), whereas nan1 was the least commonly expressed gene 1316 (22.7%). The antibiotic susceptibility profile showed that TOB was the least sensitive antibiotic (26.5%), followed by CIP (34.7%), whereas CT was the most sensitive antibiotic (89.8%), followed by GAT (83.7%) and PB (81.6%). Several virulence genes were identified in P. aeruginosa isolates, suggesting that these genes are associated with varying degrees of intrinsic virulence and pathogenicity. Substantial associations between specific virulence genes and the source of infection imply that infection control measures can aid in regulating the distribution of virulence genes among P. aeruginosa strains.


Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Virulence Genes, Keratitis

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© The Author(s) 2022. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.