Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a significant public health concern, particularly in low-income countries. The host immune response plays an essential role in hepatitis B virus outcome, mainly orchestrated by cytokines and immune modulators molecules such as vitamin D. This study aimed to determine the levels of cytokines (IL-10), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interferon-lambada (IFN-lambada), granzyme B, and vitamin D in Khartoum, Sudan, and to assess the association between them and variable HBV viral load as well as liver enzyme levels. A total of 174 participants were enrolled in the trial, with 100 HBV-infected patients (who were HIV and HCV negative) and 74 healthy volunteers. Patients’ HBV viral load, vitamin D levels, liver enzymes, and circulatory cytokines were measured. This study revealed a remarkable decrease in vitamin D levels in HBV infected patients with an elevation in levels of liver biomarkers. The level of IL-10 was significantly higher in patients than in apparently healthy controls (p-value <0.001). There was a positive correlation between IFN-ϒ, Granzyme B, and viral load. According to the findings of this study, there is a marked hypovitaminosis D among hepatitis B infected patients with a significant increase in IL-10, which may implicate the persistence of HBV infection. Moreover, HBV DNA levels were significantly associated with IFN- g and granzyme B levels.
Hepatitis B Virus, Cytokines, Vitamin D
Share This Article
© The Author(s) 2022. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.