ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Nada Mohamed Hassan Amien1 , Ayman Ali Mohammed Alameen2,3, Kashaf Junaid2, Abualgasim Elgaili Abdalla2,4, Mona O.A. Awadelkarim5, Hind M. Siddig6 and Naser Eldin Bilal1
1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.
2Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences,
Jouf University, Skaka, Saudi Arabia.
3Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.
4Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Scinces, Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Sudan.
5Department of Microbiology, Napata College, Khartoum, Sudan.
6Department of Microbiology, Karary University, Omdurman, Sudan.
Article Number: 7734 | © The Author(s). 2022
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2022;16(3):1643-1651.
Received: 03 April 2022 | Accepted: 25 May 2022 | Published online: 24 June 2022
Issue online: September 2022

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a significant public health concern, particularly in low-income countries. The host immune response plays an essential role in hepatitis B virus outcome, mainly orchestrated by cytokines and immune modulators molecules such as vitamin D. This study aimed to determine the levels of cytokines (IL-10), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interferon-lambada (IFN-lambada), granzyme B, and vitamin D in Khartoum, Sudan, and to assess the association between them and variable HBV viral load as well as liver enzyme levels. A total of 174 participants were enrolled in the trial, with 100 HBV-infected patients (who were HIV and HCV negative) and 74 healthy volunteers. Patients’ HBV viral load, vitamin D levels, liver enzymes, and circulatory cytokines were measured. This study revealed a remarkable decrease in vitamin D levels in HBV infected patients with an elevation in levels of liver biomarkers. The level of IL-10 was significantly higher in patients than in apparently healthy controls (p-value <0.001). There was a positive correlation between IFN-ϒ, Granzyme B, and viral load. According to the findings of this study, there is a marked hypovitaminosis D among hepatitis B infected patients with a significant increase in IL-10, which may implicate the persistence of HBV infection. Moreover, HBV DNA levels were significantly associated with IFN- g and granzyme B levels.


Hepatitis B Virus, Cytokines, Vitamin D

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© The Author(s) 2022. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.