ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Bibas Bahadur Tiwari1, Deepak Subedi1, Suman Bhandari1,Prajjwal Shrestha1, Chet Raj Pathak2, Deepak Chandran3, Gita Pandey2 , Pran Mohankumar4 and Kuldeep Dhama5
1Paklihawa Campus, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Tribhuvan University, Siddharthanagar 32900, Nepal.
2National Cattle Research Program, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Bharatpur 44200, Nepal.
3Department of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Amrita School of Agricultural Sciences, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University, Coimbatore – 642 109, India.
4School of Agriculture and Biosciences, Karunya Institute of Technology and Sciences, Coimbatore – 641 114, India.
5Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India – 243 122.
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2022;16(2):1392-1403 | Article Number: 7829 | © The Author(s). 2022
Received: 08/05/2022 | Accepted: 30/05/2022 | Published online: 01/06/2022
Issue online: June 2022

Subclinical mastitis (SCM), the asymptomatic inflammation of breast tissue, is the most common form of mastitis in livestock. SCM prevalence and risk factors in dairy animals in Western Chitwan, Bagmati Province, Nepal, were the primary objectives of this study. Out of 243 dairy animals, 104 representing 42.8% were positive for SCM in the California mastitis test (CMT) in the study area. At the quarter level, out of 972 active quarters tested for SCM, 188 (19.3%) were positive to CMT test. The prevalence of Staphylococcal SCM was 39.92% (97/243) and 18.21% (177/972) at animal level and quarter level, respectively. Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CNS) (46.33%) was the most prevalent Staphylococcus to cause SCM at quarter level. While at animal level, SCM due to occurrence of both S. aureus and CNS (36.08%) in an individual was more common. High  susceptibility towards Amikacin, Ceftriaxone and Gentamicin was seen against both isolates. Low resistance against Amikacin and Ceftriaxone was seen against both isolates. Ciprofloxacin (41.2% vs 27.4%) and Gentamicin (37.8% vs 23.2%) were more resistance towards CNS whereas Enrofloxacin (41.1% vs 25.2%) and Tetracycline (36.8% vs 15.1%) were more resistant towards S. aureus. Older aged, multiparous and late lactating animals had the highest prevalence of staphylococcal SCM i.e., 58.1%, 56% and 52.6%, respectively. The study concludes that there is a high prevalence of Staphylococcal SCM in Western Chitwan, Nepal. CNS is the most common mastitis pathogen. Increased antimicrobial resistance to S. aureus and CNS could be the result of the indiscriminate use of antibiotic drugs without an antibiotic susceptibility test (AST). This study emphasizes the importance of ongoing antibiotic surveillance, excellent farm and animal hygiene, and suitable housing and feeding management.


Risk factors, Antibiogram, Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus, S. aureus, Subclinical mastitis, Nepal

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© The Author(s) 2022. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.