ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Khaliq Ur Rahman1 , Imdad Ullah2, Kamran Ullah3, Arshad Husain4, Shafqat Ullah4, Abdur Rauf1, Zainab Gul5, Halim Ur Rahman6 and Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan7,8*
1Department of Chemistry, University of Swabi, Anbar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
2Department of Zoology, University of Swabi, Anbar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
3Institute of Chemical Sciences, University of Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
4PCSIR Laboratories Complex Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
5Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Khyber Medical University Peshawar, Pakistan.
6Department of Pharmacy, Riphah International University Islamabad, Pakistan.
7Deanship of Scientific Research, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, P. O. Box 715, Saudi Arabia.
8Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Zagazig, Egypt.
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2022;16(2):1147-1153 | Article Number: 7474 | © The Author(s). 2022
Received: 09/12/2021 | Accepted: 31/03/2022 | Published online: 31/05/2022
Issue online: June 2022

The present study evaluated the antifungal activity of honey samples collected from different locations at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK, Pakistan). Disc diffusion method was used to test the antifungal potential of twenty-one (branded, unbranded, and natural comb) honey samples from the different botanical origins at different concentrations (undiluted, 10%, 30%, and 50%, w/v) against Candida albicans and Rhodotorula species. Branded, unbranded, and natural comb honey samples generate different inhibition zones (4-13 mm, 5-15 mm, and 8-17 mm) against Rhodotorula species. Candida albicans showed resistance for all tested honey samples. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Candida albicans and Rhodotorula species were 53.33%-88.12% and 1.76%-90.22% for branded, 61.3% – 93.8% and 9.90% – 95.5% for unbranded, and 67.1%-96.8% and 6.39%-98.8% for natural comb honey. In conclusion, natural comb honey from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa may have antifungal therapeutic potential and could be a useful source for generating functional food.


Bee products, biological activity, Candida albicans, Rhodotorula sp

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© The Author(s) 2022. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.