ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Ravikant1 , Preeti Kumari1, Manoj Kumar2, Partha Roy1 and M. Jeya3
1Department of Microbiology, World College of Medical Science & Research and Hospital, Jhajjar – 124103, Haryana, India.
2Department of Emergency Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi – 110029, India.
3Department of Microbiology, Rajah Muthiah Medical College & Hospital, Annamalai University, Chidambaram – 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India.
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2022;16(2):1111-1121 | Article Number: 6983 | © The Author(s). 2022
Received: 13/04/2021 | Accepted: 06/04/2022 | Published online: 27/05/2022
Issue online: June 2022

Opportunistic behavior of commensal bacteria during severe infection, especially of the intestine is always considered as a predisposing threat for the severely ill patient admitted to hospitals. A descriptive-analytical case-control study was carried out to detect the prevalence and risk factor analysis of fecal carriage of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Patients having fecal carriage of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were considered as cases and patients who were without Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were taken as the control in a proportion of 1:4. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) was confirmed by both conventional as well as molecular methods. Methods such as Combined Disk Test, mCIMtest, and RAPIDEC CarbaNP Test were used for phenotypic identification of CRE, Whereas Real-Time (RT)-PCR was used for the detection of bla-gene encoded for CRE (blaNDM1, blaVIM, blaKPC, blaIMP, and blaOXA48). All patients belonging to medicine wards were included in the study. we screened 436 patients during the study and found 160 patients suitable for our study, out of which 32 (20%) were cases and 128 (80%) were controls. We found a total number of 25 genes out of 16 isolates, where NDM 1 was identified in maximum numbers followed by KPC &VIM. Standard statistical analyses such as chi-squire and odd ratios were conducted to determine the risk factor of different variables. Stepwise multiple logistic regressions were carried out, where we found, that transfer from other wards to medicine ward, use of nebulizer and intravenous catheter, and use of multiple antibiotics were still statistically significant. Implementation of Multi-modal colonization prevention and control is the need for the present situation throughout the world.


Gut colonization, CRE, Fecal Carriage, NDM-1, RT-PCR

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© The Author(s) 2022. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.