Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a leading cause of morbidity in urinary tract infection (UTI). We aimed to identify simple biomarkers and bacterial virulence factors associated with AKI in a setting of upper UTI due to uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). We designed a cross-sectional study to analyse biomarkers of AKI in upper UTI patients. A total of 2758 patients presenting to a tertiary care center with symptoms of upper UTI were assessed for the presence of diabetes mellitus, AKI, blood group non-secretors, urine microscopy and hemogram. 300 patients with UPEC in bacterial culture were studied for bacterial virulence factors by phenotypic and genotypic methods and the patients were followed up for a minimum period of two weeks. Patients with diabetes mellitus, non-secretors, Urine microscopy (UM) score > 2 and higher (> 3.9) neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) at initial presentation, were found to be significantly associated with AKI at presentation and predicted AKI at 7th and 14th day follow up. They were also significantly associated with need and increased duration of hospitalization. There was no association of virulence factors of UPEC with diabetes mellitus, AKI or need for hospitalization. However, virulence factors had a significant association (p<0.001)with non-secretors. UM score and NLR are simple tools to identify AKI at presentation and predict AKI during follow-up and the need for hospitalization. Patients with diabetes mellitus and non-secretors are also at higher risk of AKI. Non-secretors are significantly associated with both phenotypic and genotypic expression of virulence factors of UPEC.
Acute Kidney Injury, Neutrophil lymphocyte ratio, Urine microscopy score, non-secretors, Virulence factors of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli
Share This Article
© The Author(s) 2022. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.