ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Review Article | Open Access
Rihana Begum Patnool1, Ashish Wadhwani2, V. Balasubramaniam3and Sivasankaran Ponnusankar1
1Department of Pharmacy Practice, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education & Research, Ooty – 643 001, The Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India.
2Faculty of Health of Sciences, School of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education & Research, Vacoas – Phoenix – 73304, Mauritius.
3Department of Emergency Medicine, Govt. Medical College & Hospital, Ooty – 643 001, The Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India.
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2022;16(2):769-781 | Article Number: 7480 | © The Author(s). 2022
Received: 09/12/2021 | Accepted: 15/03/2022 | Published online: 02/05/2022
Issue online: June 2022

Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) is one of the most common infections, especially among women. Presently accessible antibiotics are a clinician’s first line of defense to treat infections, but antimicrobial resistance menace to reduce their efficacy. The consequences of multi-drug resistance to antibiotics are enhanced morbidity and mortality rates. The yearly death toll is >700,000 population worldwide, rising to ~10 million by 2050. There is a lack of novel antibiotics for UTIs as the return on its investment is poor compared to medicines for lifestyle diseases. The three organisms of utmost worry are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Carbapenems and third-generation Cephalosporins resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, Fluoroquinolones and third-generation Cephalosporins resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli). Among these, Escherichia coli is the foremost cause of community-acquired UTI infections throughout the globe, mainly due to the absence of alertness and inappropriate wastewater treatment. The purpose of this review article is to explore literature on uropathogens, the pattern of their antimicrobial resistance, and the hospital practices concerning the spread, as inadequate studies have been carried out and published on this topic. Hospital personnel are usually familiar with the management of infections, but most do not understand the conditions in their hospital. Implications of hospital practices play a major role in controlling hospital-acquired UTIs and the burden of its antimicrobial resistance. A complete approach involving financial and human resources will improve the infection control practices in hospitals without a doubt. Strict infection control measures in hospitals can help to reduce the number of hospital-acquired infections in pregnant women.


Hospital infection control, Antibiotic resistance, Hospital wastewater, Antibiotic concentrations, urinary tract infection, nosocomial infection

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