Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common bacterial pathogen causes wide range of infections all over the world. The antimicrobial resistance of K. pneumoniae is a global concern and expresses several virulence factors contributing to the pathogenesis. The incidences of bacterial co-infection in viral pneumonia are common. Increased risk of K. pneumoniae co-infection in viral respiratory tract infection should be alerted in COVID-19 pandemic period. The study aims to detect the association between antimicrobial resistance and factors causing pathogenicity of K. pneumoniae. For the current study, 108 K. pneumoniae clinical isolates were included. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. Virulence factors such as biofilm formation, haemagglutination, haemolysins, hypermucoviscocity, siderophore, amylase, and gelatinase production were determined by phenotypic method. In this study K. pneumoniae showed high level of antimicrobial resistance towards ampicillin (92.59%) followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (67.59%) and cotrimoxazole (47,22%). An important association between biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance was found to be statistically significant for cotrimoxazole (P-value 0.036) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (P-value 0.037). Other virulence factors like hypermucoviscocity, haemagglutination, amylase, and siderophore production were also showed a statistically significant relation (P-value <0.05) with antimicrobial resistance. Further molecular studies are necessary for the identification of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes, for the effective control of drug-resistant bacteria.
Antimicrobial susceptibility, Biofilm, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pathogenesis, Virulence factors
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