Nipah virus (NiV) belongs to the biosafety level four (BSL-4) group of human pathogens of zoonotic origin. It is an emerging pathogen capable of causing a variety of clinical presentations, including encephalitis and severe acute respiratory illness, which can be fatal. Interestingly, it can also cause asymptomatic infections, which can relapse after a long period of time ranging from months to years following initial infection. Zoonotic transmission involves bats or pigs. In addition, transmission via contaminated food and occasional human to human direct transmission may also occur. It can have diverse epidemiological features and can have a very high case fatality ratio. Although a variety of immunological and molecular assays have been developed and epidemiological monitoring procedures for this disease have been introduced, there are no drugs available for this virus. Vaccines are at different stages of development. In this mini-review, we present the latest information on the Nipah virus; primarily focusing on emergence, transmission, pathogenic mechanisms and possible prophylactic and treatment options.
Nipah, virus, zoonosis, outbreak
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