The efficacy of antagonistic microorganisms and secondary metabolites of entomopathogenic bacteria was evaluated in vitro and in vivo against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), a causal agent of rice bacterial leaf blight. The effect of the culture filtrates of the microorganisms was tested against Xoo, using the agar well diffusion assay. Trichoderma sp. UB05/3 was the most effective against Xoo. However, the results were not statistically different from those of the entomopathogenic bacterium Serratia nematodiphila GCSR38 with a 22.97 mm and 19.15 mm zone of inhibition, respectively. The effect of the secondary metabolite crude extracts of antagonistic microorganisms (2,000 µg/ml) on Xoo inhibition was tested by the paper disc diffusion method. Only S. nematodiphila GCSR38 was able to control Xoo, with an inhibition zone of 17.60 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using a 96-well microtiter plate. The MIC of secondary metabolites crude extracts of S. nematodiphila GCSR38 was 1,000 µg/ml and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 1,000 µg/ml. The efficacy of the secondary metabolite crude extract of S. nematodiphila GCSR38 against Xoo was tested using the detached leaf technique; the secondary metabolite crude extracts controlled the disease, with 24.45% and 15.56% disease severity when used before and after inoculation with Xoo, respectively. Inoculation with Xoo alone resulted in a disease severity of 44.45%. The secondary metabolite crude extracts of S. nematodiphila GCSR38 can reduce disease severity of bacterial leaf blight in rice by 28.89%, whereas zinc thiazole causes a disease severity of 22.22% and Xoo alone causes a disease severity of 66.67%.
Entomopathogenic bacteria, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), secondary metabolite
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