Lantana camara is known to have anti-bacterial properties which can be exploited to develop a natural food preservative. There is huge demand for natural preservatives in food industry due to the increased health risks associated with synthetic preservatives, development of effecient extraction methods are essential to retain heat sensitive bioactive compounds. This aim of this study was to compare the performance of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), and conventional solvent extraction (CSE) methods for extraction of freeze-dried lantana flower. The phytochemicals in freeze-dried flowers were characterized by GC-MS analysis and antibacterial properties were tested at different concentrations (50, 100, and 150 µl) against E.coli, Salmonella, and S. aureus. It was evident that the UAE offered the highest yield (64%), followed by MAE (53%) and CSE (49%) with distilled water as solvent. The freeze-dried extract possessed a high amount of tannins (417 µg/g), followed by flavonoids such as catechol (88 µg/g) and quercetin (9.2 µg/g). The antibacterial potential results revealed that only distilled water-based extraction techniques offered positive inhibition zones of 2.0-2.67 mm (MAE), 1.67-2.67 mm (UAE), and 1.67-2.17 mm (CSE) against all three organisms, while the chloroform based extracts had no inhibition effect. The microwave-assisted extract at 150 µl concentration offered a significant inhibitory effect against all three pathogens. The GC-MS profiling of bioactive compounds in flower extract revealed the presence of hexadecanoic acid as the major phytochemical compound in all three extraction techniques. The study revealed that the chloroform extract failed to exhibit an antibacterial effect due to the absence of alkaloids, saponins, and anthraquinones as a result of its neutralizing effect.
Lantana camara, extraction, antimicrobial, freeze-dried, ultrasound-assisted, microwave-assisted
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