ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Review Article | Open Access

Aparajita Sen1, Sunita Aggarwal2 , Shalini Sehgal3, Nitika Nagpal2, Aayushi2, Anushka Joshi2, Pranjal Saini2 and Radhika Chawla2

1Department of Genetics, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi – 110 021, India.
2Department of Microbiology, Institute of Home Economics, University of Delhi, New Delhi – 110 016, India.
3Department of Food Technology, Bhaskaracharya, College of Applied Sciences, University of Delhi, New Delhi – 110 075, India.
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2022;16(1):35-49 | Article Number: 7180
https://doi.org/10.22207/JPAM.16.1.37 | © The Author(s). 2022
Received: 14/04/2021 | Accepted: 05/01/2022 | Published online: 21/02/2022
Issue online: March 2022
Abstract

COVID-19 manifested itself as a global pandemic in 2019 but even in 2021, it is still not successfully contained. This virus has claimed millions of lives worldwide and rendered many more jobless. Apart from causing mild to severe pneumonia, the virus has also caused a loss of livelihood for thousands globally, along with widespread trauma and depression. Since the transmission rate of the virus is so high, temporary prophylaxis relied on sanitization, wearing masks and physical distancing. However, a long-term solution for stopping viral spread is vaccination. Apart from being the fastest way to induce immunity against the virus, vaccination is also the cheapest and most practical way. However, a vaccine can only be commercially available after it has passed through various clinical trial phases. So far, more than two hundred potential vaccine candidates underwent different phases of the clinical trial, and some of the front-runners have shown more than 90% efficacy. This review has compiled all such vaccine candidates, their types, their modes of action, and the associated pros and cons. The current advances in clinical trials of vaccines have also been discussed, such as plant-based and cocktail vaccines that have recently emerged. Nowadays, novel strains like Delta plus are also emerging and posing a threat. Thus, it is mandatory to get vaccinated and choose a vaccine that provides long-term protection against multiple strains.

Keywords

COVID-19, Vaccine, Pandemic, Pfizer-BioNTech, SARS-Coronavirus-2, Coronavirus

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© The Author(s) 2022. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.