Ten marine-derived fungi crude extracts, namely Emericella stellatus KUFA0208, Eupenicillium parvum KUFA0237, Neosartorya siamensis KUFA0514, N. spinosa KUFA 0528, Talaromyces flavus KUFA 0119, T. macrosporus KUFA 0135, T. trachyspermus KUFA0304, Trichoderma asperellum KUFA 0559, T. asperellum KUFA 0559 and T. harzianum KUFA 0631 were determined for their fungicidal activity against five rice pathogens in vitro. The results showed that the extracts of E. stellatus KUFA0208 and N. siamensis KUFA0514 exhibited the best antifungal activity, causing complete cessation of the mycelial growth of Alternaria padwickii, Bipalaris oryzae, Fusarium semitectum, Pyricularia oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani at 10 g/L. The N. siamensis KUFA0514 extract was fractioned and antifungal compounds were found in the fractions derived from petroleum-ether and chloroform (7: 3) evidenced by inhibition zones against the mycelial growth of A. padwickii around the disc containing each fraction. Moreover, in rice growth promotion tests, diluted cultural broth of T. asperellum KUFA 0559 and T. harzianum KUFA 0631 were found to strongly promote rice shoot and root elongation; however, higher concentrations of all marine fungal broths resulted in significantly reduced rice seedling growth rather than promotion. Meanwhile, Trichoderma showed great indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production leading to the optimum IAA values of 45.38 and 52.30 µg/ml at 11 and 13 days after inoculation, respectively. The results of this study indicated that marine fungi are promising agents having antagonistic mechanisms involving antibiosis production and plant growth promotion and may be developed as novel biocontrol agents for rice disease management.
Antagonist fungi, marine fungi, rice disease control, rice seedling growth
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