The diverse microbial populations in milk produce a range of antimicrobial compounds that confer preservative action. Goat milk characterized by high nutritional value, medicinal properties and hypoallergenic in nature, constitutes the most prevalent non-bovine milk consumed globally. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), renowned for their probiotic properties, are important constituents of goat milk microflora. In this study, bacterial strains with probiotic potential were isolated and characterized from milk samples of indigenous Indian goat breeds. On MRS medium, Gram-positive rods were observed after anaerobic culture. Based on 16s rRNA technique LAB from goat milk were identified to belong to Enterococcus durans and Lactobacuillus plantarum. Antimicrobial activities were observed against known pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia. coli and Salmonella typhimurium) and minimum inhibitory concentration was found to be low (6.5 mg/ml) for most of the isolates. High resistance to both acidic condition (pH 2.0) and 0.3% bile salts was observed along with marginal increase in cell counts in some isolates. Adherence to Caco-2 cell lines was observed in all the four identified LABs and was higher in case of Enterococcus durans compared to Lactobacillus plantarum. LC-MS analysis revealed the presence of lacticin as one of the key component of cell free extracts (CFE) of selected isolate. Goat milk as a source of possible LAB probiotics opens up a whole new avenue of probiotics from non-bovine milk sources. LAB strains isolated in this study are potential probiotic candidates that can be employed as antimicrobial agents in food and pharmaceutical industries.
Goat milk, Lactic acid bacteria, Probiotics, Antimicrobial activity, Cell surface characteristics, Bacteriocins
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