Melioidosis is a severe systemic infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, a gram-negative bacillus with bipolar staining. It is an environmental saprophyte endemic to Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. The disease can have varying manifestations. This is a retrospective study of the clinical and microbiological profile of culture-proven cases of melioidosis who presented to a tertiary care hospital in Coastal Karnataka between January 2018 and December 2020. The epidemiological, demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics were studied and analyzed. A total of 27 cases were seen during the study period. All patients were from the western coastal areas of India. Fever was the most common presenting complaint. Analysis of the clinical manifestations showed 11 (40.74%) with bacteremia. Pneumonia was the most common primary clinical presentation with 11 cases (40.74%). 9 (33.3%) patients had an abscess in some part of the body on presentation. Secondary foci were seen in 5 (18.5%) patients. The prominent risk factors seen were history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, age >40 years, alcoholism and smoking. 13 (48.15%) were started with the treatment regimen for melioidosis. Only 8 (29.63%) were prescribed the eradication treatment regimen. One case which was inadequately treated came back with reactivation of melioidosis. Varied clinical presentation of melioidosis makes the specific clinical diagnosis difficult. Due to the high mortality and morbidity rate, early diagnosis and prompt management is warranted, this requires clinical vigilance and an intensive microbiological workup. Lack of adherence to the treatment protocol can lead to reactivation.
Melioidosis, pneumonia, therapy, recurrence
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