ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Muhammad Numan1, Mateen Jabbar1, Aizza Zafar1, Humera Javed1, Sonia Younas2, Khalid Omer Abdalla Abosalif3, Kashaf Junaid3, Ayman Ali Mohammed Alameen3, Abualgasim Elgaili Abdalla3, Muhammad Usman Qamar4 and Hasan Ejaz3
1Department of Microbiology, The Children’s Hospital and The Institute of Child Health, Lahore, Pakistan.
2HKU-Pasteur Research Pole, School of Public Health, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
3Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University, Al Jouf 72388, Saudi Arabia.
4Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan.
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2022;16(1):130-137 | Article Number: 7402 | © The Author(s). 2022
Received: 30/10/2021 | Accepted: 10/12/2021 | Published online: 03/01/2022
Issue online: March 2022

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important contributor to chronic morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The study’s objective was to determine the genotype distribution and risk factors associated with the transmission of HCV infections in pediatric patients. Rapid screening and confirmation by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to analyze 585 pediatric blood specimens hospitalized and visited the outpatient department of the largest tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. Detection and genotyping of HCV RNA were performed using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Demographic data and a history of risk factors were gathered through a survey questionnaire. HCV RNA was detected in 323 (72.4%) cases which showed viral load ranging from Log10 IU/mL < 3 to > 6 IU/mL. HCV genotype 3a was detected in 256 (79.3%) cases while type 3b and 1a was observed in 36 (11.1%) and 31 (9.6%) patients, respectively. HCV positivity was significantly associated with the cases from rural areas [p = 0.005; odds ratio (OR) 1.65; 95% CI 1.16-2.23] and also significantly associated with low-income group [p < 0.001; OR 5.75; 95% CI 3.90-8.40]. The primary risk factors associated with HCV transmission in children were family history (p = 0.002), blood transfusion (p = 0.03), surgical procedures (p = 0.02), and history of injections (p = 0.05). HCV genotype 3a is the most common genotype in children. The main risk factors for HCV transmission in children are blood transfusion, surgical procedures, and injection practices by informal health care providers.


Hepatitis C virus, Genotype 3, Risk factors, HCV transmission, Children

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© The Author(s) 2022. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.