ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
M. Divyashree1 , Madhu K. Mani1 and Shama Prakash K2
1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Nitte University Center for Science Education and Research (NUCSER), NITTE (Deemed to be University), Deralakatte, Mangalore – 575 018, Karnataka, India.
2K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, NITTE (Deemed to be University), Deralakatte, Mangalore – 575 018, Karnataka, India.
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2021;15(4):2403-2408 | Article Number: 7300 | © The Author(s). 2021
Received: 08/09/2021 | Accepted: 03/11/2021 | Published: 23/11/2021

This study aims to isolate gram-negative bacteria (GNB) harboring the gene NDM-1 from the tertiary care hospital effluents. Also, aims to evaluate the relative copy number of blaNDM-1 carried by the positive isolates. The study isolated 215 GNB from 40 effluent samples. The antibiotic susceptibility tests for carbapenems were performed using disc diffusion assay. The isolates resistant to either meropenem or imipenem were checked for the existence of MBL by phenotypic methods. The isolates carrying NDM-1 gene were genotypically confirmed by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The gene copy number of blaNDM- were determined by quantative real-time PCR. A total of 22 isolates showed phenotypic resistance to carbapenems and were characterized by biochemical methods. Among them, 12 harbored NDM-1 gene by PCR; these bacteria were subjected to qPCR for determining the absolute copy numbers of the NDM-1 gene on it. The gene abundance in the strains was in the range of 3.28× 105 to 6.05× 106 copies/ ng of DNA. Hospital effluents are important pool of antibiotic-resistant bacteria harboring the blaNDM-1 and infections caused by these bacteria are difficult to treat. Hence, the present study stresses the need for stringent antibiotic use and efficient wastewater treatment policies in these hospital settings, which is paramount in achieving sustainable health.


wastewater, NDM-1, hospital effluent, carbapenem, qPCR

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© The Author(s) 2021. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.