ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Review Article | Open Access
Charles Arvind Sethuraman Vairavan1, Devarani Rameshnathan1,
Nagaraja Suryadevara1 and Gnanendra Shanmugam2
1School of Bioscience, Faculty of Medicine, Bioscience and Nursing, MAHSA University, Selangor, Malaysia.
2Department of Biotechnology, College of Life and Applied Sciences, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, South Korea.
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2021;15(4):1759-1780 | Article Number: 6845 | © The Author(s). 2021
Received: 01/01/2021 | Accepted: 27/09/2021 | Published: 17/11/2021

In December 2019, a novel coronavirus had emerged in Wuhan city, China that led to an outbreak resulting in a global pandemic, taking thousands of lives. The infectious virus was later classified as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Individuals infected by this novel virus initially exhibit nonspecific symptoms such as dry cough, fever, dizziness and many more bodily complications. From the “public health emergency of international concern” declaration by the World Health Organisation (WHO), several countries have taken steps in controlling the transmission and many researchers share their knowledge on the SARS-COV-2 characteristics and viral life cycle, that may aid in pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies to develop SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and antiviral drugs that interfere with the viral life cycle. In this literature review the origin, classification, aetiology, life cycle, clinical manifestations, laboratory diagnosis and treatment are all reviewed.


Coronaviruses, COVID-19, Mutation, Spike Protein, Main Protease

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© The Author(s) 2021. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.