ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Mohamed Shawky, Waleed B. Suleiman and Ayman A. Farrag
Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, The Permanent Camp St., 6th Ward, Nasr City, P.B. 11884, Cairo, Egypt.
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2021;15(4):2270-2279 | Article Number: 7338 | © The Author(s). 2021
Received: 23/09/2021 | Accepted: 01/11/2021 | Published: 15/11/2021

Bacterial infections represent a very serious problem that threatens human health, antibiotics were designed to attack the causative agents of infectious diseases, but some bacterial pathogens became virulent and resistant to antibiotics by different mechanisms, resistance genes represented one of those mechanisms. This study attempts to screen the existence of five different resistance genes (mecA, TEM, FemA, MexD, and AmpC) among 25 bacterial isolates divided into two groups the first was non-clinical bacterial type strains including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and the other group includes some clinical bacterial isolates. Evaluation of their susceptibilities to different 12 antibiotic discs and attempting to find the relationship between genotype and phenotype assessment. Different responses were reported which varied from slightly susceptible to multidrug-resistant such as P. aeruginosa and K. pneumonia which could be considered as multidrug-resistant strains. Therefore, detection of resistance gene became crucial and critical to recognize the mechanism of resistance, five pairs of primers were included to investigate five responsible genes belonging to beta-lactamases, efflux pump, and methicillin resistance. Conclusively, the PCR technique is a very accurate tool to check the genetic resistance whether being expressed to phenotype or not. Moreover, the clinical bacterial isolates appeared more resistant that reflecting the impact of the surrounding environment on bacterial behavior.


Multidrug-resistant, mecA, femA, TEM, MexD, AmpC

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© The Author(s) 2021. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.