ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
F. Sneha Kukanur, N.S. Sriprada, Sheetal Gouda , R. Meghana, G. Naveen and Swapna Kotian
Department of Microbiology, Karwar Institute of Medical Sciences, Karwar – 581 301, Karnataka, India.
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2021;15(4):2152-2162 | Article Number: 7295 | © The Author(s). 2021
Received: 06/09/2021 | Accepted: 14/10/2021 | Published: 02/11/2021

Access to safe drinking water is the key to promoting good health. At Karwar, the primary source of drinking water is well, but heavy rain, and deficiencies in underground drainage systems result in well water contamination. However, water handling practices followed at the point of consumption act as a better predictor of water contamination. To assess and compare the bacteriological quality of household water at the source and point of consumption. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at Karwar. Households owning private wells were selected by Simple Random Sampling. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to interview the households regarding socioeconomic status (SES), chlorination of well, purification method, and water handling practices. Presumptive coliform count and the differential coliform count were determined. Data thus obtained were analyzed using a Microsoft Excel. c2-test was used to see the association between variables. The present study included 30 households. All the samples taken from the well revealed contamination with E. coli. 80% of samples from the point of consumption revealed coliforms, among which 47% were confirmed with E. coli. RO/RO+UV were found to be relatively better performing than the filtration and boiling methods. Contamination of water at the point of consumption had a significant association with both purification and water retrieval methods. The samples taken from the point of consumption reflect better quality of water sampling than source water. The present study revealed post-collection contamination as major reason for compromising water quality despite improved water cleaning and purification techniques.


Coliforms, drinking water, water contamination, water analysis, chlorination

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© The Author(s) 2021. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.