Botanicals obtained from the plants are well known for the suppression of inimical plant pathogens. The present study explores the efficacy of five locally available plant extracts for their antifungal activity against the early blight of potato incited by Alternaria solani. The extracts include Datura stramonium, Allium sativum, Azadirachta indica, Eucalyptus globulus, and Lantana camara. All extracts reduced mycelial growth and conidial germination of A. solani. In vitro studies showed that extracts obtained from A. sativum and A. indica have significant inhibition of mycelial growth of A. solani (88.80 and 86.62 percent) at 20 percent concentration. Higher concentrations of A. sativum extract caused a higher reduction of A. solani radial growth on potato dextrose agar medium. Extracts obtained from A. sativum and A. indica at 20 percent concentration, were found most effective for inhibition of conidial germination (85.50 and 80.04 percent) respectively of A. solani. Observations by scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed dramatic alteration in A. solani hyphae collapsed and spores shrinked when treated with extract of A. sativum at a 20 per cent concentration. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of various phytochemicals like flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, glycosides, and phenols was showed A. sativum extract better than all the other plant extracts. Observation also revealed that 20 percent concentration of garlic extract has potential to inhibit to A. solani.
Alternaria solani, Plant extracts, Scanning Electron Microscope, Mycelial deformation
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