ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Review Article | Open Access
Yogita M. Patil1, Rajashree B. Patwardhan2 and Pragati S. Abhyankar2
1Department of Microbiology, PDEA’S Waghire College, Saswad, Pune – 412 301, Maharashtra, India.
2Department of Microbiology, Haribhai V. Desai College of Arts, Science and Commerce, Pune- 411 002, Maharashtra, India.
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2021;15(3):1111-1124 | Article Number: 6934 | © The Author(s). 2021
Received: 15/03/2021 | Accepted: 07/08/2021 | Published: 27/08/2021

Probiotics are “live strains of strictly selected microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host”. After birth, our intestine is colonized by microbes like Escherichia coli, Clostridium spp., Streptococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., Bacteroides spp., and Bifidobacterium spp. Our intestine is an extremely complex living system that participates in the protection of host through a strong defence against external aggregations. The microbial ecosystem of the intestine includes many native species of Bacteroides and Firmicutes that permanently colonize the gastrointestinal tract. The composition of flora changes over time depending upon diet and medical emergencies which leads to the diseased condition. Probiotics exert their mode of action by altering the local environment of the gut by competing with the pathogens, bacteriocins production, H2O2 production etc.  Obesity is one of the major health problems and is considered as the most prevalent form of inappropriate nutrition. Probiotics like Lactobacillus Sp., Bifidobacterium Sp., Streptococcus Sp. are successfully used in the treatment of obesity proved in clinical trials. Faecal microbiota transplant (FMT), also known as a stool transplant, is the process of transplantation of Faecal bacteria from a healthy donor into a recipient’s gut to restore normal flora in the recipient. The therapeutic principle on which FMT works is microbes and their functions and metabolites produced by them which are used to treat a variety of diseases. The present review focuses on the role of gastrointestinal microbiome, probiotic selection criteria, their applications and FMT to treat diseases.


Probiotics, Obesity, Microbial ecosystem, Faecal microbiota transplantation

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© The Author(s) 2021. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.