Injudicious consumption of antibiotics in the past few decades has arisen the problem of resistance in pathogenic organisms against most antibiotics and antimicrobial agents. Scenarios of treatment failure are becoming more common in hospitals. This situation demands the frequent need for new antimicrobial compounds which may have other mechanisms of action from those which are in current use. Limonene can be utilized as one of the solutions to the problem of antimicrobial resistance. Limonene is a naturally occurring monoterpene with a lemon-like odor, which mainly present in the peels of citrus plants like lemon, orange, grapefruit, etc. The study aimed to enlighten the antimicrobial properties of limonene as per previous literature. Advantageous contributions have been made by various research groups in the study of the antimicrobial properties of limonene. Previous studies have shown that limonene not only inhibits disease-causing pathogenic microbes, however, it also protects various food products from potential contaminants. This review article contains information about the effectiveness of limonene as an antimicrobial agent. Apart from antimicrobial property, some other uses of limonene are also discussed such as its role as fragrance and flavor additive, as in the formation of nonalcoholic beverages, as solvent and cleaner in the petroleum industry, and as a pesticide. Antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and anti-biofilm properties of limonene may help it to be used in the future as a potential antimicrobial agent with minimal adverse effects. Some of the recent studies also showed the action of limonene against COVID-19 (Coronavirus). However, additional studies are requisite to scrutinize the possible mechanism of antimicrobial action of limonene.
Antibacterial, anti-biofilm, antifungal, antiviral, bioactive compound, limonene, COVID-19
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