ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Review Article | Open Access
Vinoo Subramaniam Ramachandran1 , Mensudar Rathakrishnan2, Malathy Balaraman Ravindrran3, Alargarsamy Venkatesh2, Vidhya Shankari Shanmugasundaram4 and Karpagavinayagam Kumaraguru5
1Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Agharam Road, Selaiyur, Chennai – 600 073 Tamilnadu, India.
2Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Sree Balaji Dental College and Hospital, Pallikaranai, Chennai 600100, Tamilnadu, India.
3Department of Microbiology, Sathyabama Dental College and Hospital, Chennai 600119,
Tamilnadu, India.
4Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Asan Memorial Dental College and Hospital, Asan Nagar, Chengalpattu 603105, Tamil Nadu, India.
5Private Practice, K & V Dental Care, Chennai 600126, Tamilnadu, India.
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2021;15(2):534-543 | Article Number: 6830 | © The Author(s). 2021
Received: 25/12/2020 | Accepted: 19/04/2021 | Published: 26/05/2021

Bacteria and its by-products are found to be the main cause of pulpal and periapical infection of tooth. Infected root canals of tooth harbours a wide variation of microbial flora that includes both Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Bacterial components such as Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram negative bacteria and Lipoteichoic Acid (LTA) of gram positive bacteria have the potential to enter the peri-apical tissue of tooth and initiate the inflammatory process. After microbial death that occurs either due to body’s defence cells or by antibiotic action , bacterial cell wall components such as LTA are released which can persist inside macrophages for prolonged periods causing chronic inflammation. Once these cell-wall components are recognized by the body immune surveillance cells, numerous inflammatory mediators are released leading to inflammation and subsequent pathological consequences. The purpose of this review is intend to summarize the role of gram positive bacterial component LTA in causing endodontic infection and use of potential therapeutic agents against LTA.


Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), endodontic infection, Enterococcus faecalis lipoteichoic acid

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