Bacteria and its by-products are found to be the main cause of pulpal and periapical infection of tooth. Infected root canals of tooth harbours a wide variation of microbial flora that includes both Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Bacterial components such as Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram negative bacteria and Lipoteichoic Acid (LTA) of gram positive bacteria have the potential to enter the peri-apical tissue of tooth and initiate the inflammatory process. After microbial death that occurs either due to body’s defence cells or by antibiotic action , bacterial cell wall components such as LTA are released which can persist inside macrophages for prolonged periods causing chronic inflammation. Once these cell-wall components are recognized by the body immune surveillance cells, numerous inflammatory mediators are released leading to inflammation and subsequent pathological consequences. The purpose of this review is intend to summarize the role of gram positive bacterial component LTA in causing endodontic infection and use of potential therapeutic agents against LTA.
Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), endodontic infection, Enterococcus faecalis lipoteichoic acid
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