ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Review Article | Open Access
Gopala Koneru1 , Hager H. Sayed2, Nayera A. Abd-elhamed2, Nouran Elsedfy2, Amira H. Mohamed2, Hania A. Abdellatif2, Fatmaalzharaa F. Mohamed2, Esraa H. Bahnasawy2, Nayera K. Mousa2, Aml Eisa2,Esraa A. Elshenawy2, Yassmin Z. Basheer2, Esraa H. Sayed2,Farah F. Mohamed2, Walaa R. Ali2, Hadir A. Soliman2,Ashrakt A. Eltabary2, Noorhan M. Sayed2, Nourhan H. Nasr2,Nour S. Khairallah2 and Helal F. Hetta3,4
1Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Rutger New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, New Jersey 07103, USA.
2House Officer, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71515, Egypt.
3Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71515, Egypt.
4Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA.
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2021;15(2):512-523 | Article Number: 6844 | © The Author(s). 2021
Received: 08/01/2021 | Accepted: 16/03/2021 | Published: 11/05/2021

COVID-19 pandemic, which caused by the newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS- CoV-2), puts the entire world in an unprecedented crisis, leaving behind huge human losses and serious socio-economical damages. The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 varies from asymptomatic to multi-organ manifestations. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic inflammatory condition, which associated with metabolic and vascular abnormalities, increases the risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection, severity and mortality. Due to global prevalence, DM effect on COVID-19 outcomes as well as the potential mechanisms by which DM modulates the host-viral interactions and host-immune responses are discussed in this review. This review also highlights the effects of anti-diabetic drugs on treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection and vice versa.


COVID-19, diabetes, risk factor, cytokines

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© The Author(s) 2021. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.