ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Review Article | Open Access
Md. Rayhan Chowdhury1, Md. Atik Mas-ud1,2, Md Roushan Ali2,3,Mst Fatamatuzzohora1, Ajmeri Sultana Shimu4, Md. Anamul Haq1,Md. Ashikul Islam2,5, Md. Firose Hossain6, Md. Hosenuzzaman7, Md. Mominul Islam8, Md. Faruk Hasan2 and Mohammad Nurul Matin1
1Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi -6205, Bangladesh.
2Professor Joarder DNA and Chromosome Research Lab., Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi – 6205, Bangladesh.
3The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, School of Life Sciences and Medical Center, University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), Hefei, Anhui – 230027, China.
4Department of Medical Oncology, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui – 230027, China.
5Center for Genomics and Biotechnology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian-350002, China.
6Department of Molecular and Functional Genomics, Interdisciplinary Center for Science Research, Shimane University, Matsue, 690-8504, Japan.
7Department of Soil Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh.
8Department of Physiology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh.
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2021;15(2):500-511 | Article Number: 6891 | © The Author(s). 2021
Received: 17/02/2021 | Accepted: 30/03/2021 | Published: 11/05/2021

The world experienced the outbreak of a new pandemic disease in 2019, known as coronavirus (CoV) disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The respiratory system is the organ system most commonly affected by COVID-19; however, several other organ systems have been reported to be affected. The SARS-CoV-2 RNA found in infected stub samples can cause lung contagion by binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor of the alveolar epithelial cells. The gut microbiota (GM) promote immunity, indicating that the alignment of the microbiota and corresponding metabolic processes in COVID-19 can help to identify novel biomarkers and new therapeutic targets for this disease. The cause of kidney damage in COVID-19 patients is possibly multifactorial, involving a complex mechanism that involves complement dysregulation and thrombotic microangiopathy, as well as the occurrence of a “cytokine storm” syndrome, which are immune responses that are abandoned and dysfunctional with unfavorable prognosis in severe COVID-19 cases. Furthermore, COVID-19 involves a continuous proliferation and activation of macrophages and lymphocytes. SARS-CoV-2 can also bind to the ACE-2 receptor expressed in the cerebral capillary endothelial cells that can invade the blood-brain wall, to penetrate the brain parenchyma. However, in the ongoing pandemic, there has been a surge in studies on a wide range of topics, including causes of respiratory failure, asymptomatic patients, intensive care patients, and survivors. This review briefly describes the damaging effects of COVID-19 on vital human organs and the inhibitory function of the ACE-2 receptor on the GM, which causes gut dysbiosis, and thus, this review discusses topics that have an opportunity for further investigation.


COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, ACE-2, Gut microbiome, Body organs

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© The Author(s) 2021. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.