ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Review Article | Open Access
Awatif Abid Al-Judaibi
Faculty of Science, Department of Biological Sciences, Microbiology Section, Jeddah University, P.O. Box: 13520, Jeddah 21414, Saudi Arabia.
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2021;15(1):42-52 | Article Number: 6672 | © The Author(s). 2021
Received: 23/09/2020 | Accepted: 04/02/2021 | Published: 19/02/2021

Scientists have invested considerable resources in the study of the microbiota of the human body. These microorganisms play pivotal roles in immunity and disease. Of which, probiotics are live beneficial microorganisms that keep your intestinal or lung microbiota healthy, and occupy a special role in combating the infections. Thus, it is critical to understand their contributions to these processes. Technology can facilitate advanced studies of the microbiota, including how it develops and its positive and negatives effects on the immune system. This paper investigates how several factors (e.g. birth delivery mode, metabolic activities, types of microorganisms, and immune system interactions) affect the microbiota, particularly in early life. The paper also discusses how gastrointestinal microbes in particular may be associated with certain disease processes, such as those related to schizophrenia, autism, and diabetes. Clinical studies show that certain probiotic strains, like  Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis help to prevent infection of pathogenic organisms  (both bacterial and viral). This research may yield crucial contributions to disease prevention and public health. The dysbiosis may result in changes in the acquired immunity later on. The probiotic strains can prevent viral replication during SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 infection by reducing proinflammatory cytokines. There has been much interest into the intestinal flora as proposed by the diversity, volume, and proposed role in disease. Future research in the field of microbiome should be done in order to uncover their association to gut virome by noting both their influence on each other and relevant health and disease.


COVID-19, Microbiota, Immune system, Crohn’s disease, Schizophrenia

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© The Author(s) 2021. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.