ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Ayman A. Farrag1,2, Mohammed H. EL-Haw3 and Ahmad A.K Al-Bokhomy4
1Microbiology Department Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Egypt.
2Al-Azhar Center for Fermentation Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology, Egypt.
3Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.
4Al-Azhar University, Tanta, Egypt.
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2021;15(1):138-154 | Article Number: 6680 | © The Author(s). 2021
Received: 27/09/2020 | Accepted: 11/01/2021 | Published: 02/02/2021

The current study concerns with enhancement of xylanase and β-xylosidase activities from lignocellulosic materials by soil derived fungi Trichoderma viride under solid state fermentation (SSF). Xylanase and β-xylosidase activities were found to affected by variety of factors. In this study, some agricultural wastes were selected and used as sources for carbon. Sugar beet pulp (SBP) was at the forefront of these types. Also, various sources for nitrogen were selected to determine the best one. Yeast extract was the best organic source. Maximum xylanase activity took place by using inoculum size 1.8 × 105 spores / ml at 30°C when the pH was 5.5 for eight days of incubation with the addition of 0.1 % of Tween 40. Moreover, spores of Trichoderma viride were irradiated with gamma–rays. The maximum activity was observed upon using 0.7 kilo-gray (kGy). Furthermore, mixed cultures of Trichoderma viride and Penicillium janthenellum (wt / wt) were enhanced xylanase degrading capability. From another standpoint, ammonium sulphate and gel filtration chromatography were the best methods for xylanase purification. Characterizations of the purified enzyme were also selected and studied. It was found that, β-xylosidase enzyme exhibited its maximum activity and stability when the pH was 6 at 40°C by the addition of CaCl2 metal ion. On the other hand, total protein contents and volatile constituents of Trichoderma viride and Penicillium janthenellum were separated and investigated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) techniques. It was found that, total protein contents for Trichoderma viride and Penicillium janthenellum were represented by fifteen and sixteen amino acids respectively. Also,29 compounds of the total volatile compounds for both Trichoderma viride and Penicillium janthenellum were identified. On the practical and applied field, crude enzyme was a good analyzer for agricultural residues as well showed antifungal and antibacterial effects.


Antibacterial, Antifungal, Biochemical, Biotechnological, β-xylosidase, Gamma–rays, GC / MS, HPLC, Trichoderma viride, Xylanase

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© The Author(s) 2021. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.