ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access
Shubhankar Sircar1,2, Prashant Kumar2, Mohd Ikram Ansari1, Sudipta Bhat1, Jobin Jose Kattoor3, O.R. Vinodhkumar4, Ranjit Sah5, Kuldeep Dhama6 and Yashpal Singh Malik1, 7
1Division of Biological Standardization, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly – 243 122, Uttar Pradesh, India.
2Amity Institute of Virology and Immunology, J-3 Block, Amity University, Sector – 125, Noida – 201 313, Uttar Pradesh, India.
3Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA.
4Division of Epidemiology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.
5Department of Microbiology, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal.
6Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly – 243 122, Uttar Pradesh, India.
7College of Animal Biotechnology, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab, India.
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2020;14(4):2303-2311 | Article Number: 6697 | © The Author(s). 2020
Received: 02/10/2020 | Accepted: 09/11/2020 | Published: 26/11/2020

Rotavirus A (RVA) causes viral gastroenteritis in humans and animals, including calves, piglets, and foals. The current study reports the genetic characterization of the full-length enterotoxin gene, NSP4, from caprine and ovine species. Upon characterizing eight full-length NSP4 genes by sequencing, it was found that the four caprine and three ovine RVAs NSP4 genes are of E2 genotype and the sole ovine RVA isolate was found to be of E1 genotype. In the sequence and phyloanalysis of the NSP4 gene the seven E2 genotypes clustered with bovine, human, and caprine isolates from India and Bangladesh, respectively. The E1 genotype of ovine RVA was closer to human RVA isolate from India. The nucleotide per cent identity analysis revealed that all E2 genotype strains of caprine and ovine species ranged from 88.4% to 90.4% and it was found common to both the reference human RVA isolates DS-1 and AU-1. Whereas, the E1 genotype ovine strain clustered with human RVA isolates with 93.1% nucleotide per cent identity. The RVA strains circulating in caprine and ovine populations may share a common origin which is usually found in artiodactyl species because humans share a common dwelling with animals. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings of their relationship with humans and large animals.


Rotavirus, caprine, ovine, NSP4, enterotoxin, sequencing, phylogenetic analysis

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© The Author(s) 2020. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.