Haemophilus are fastidious Gram negative bacilli, which require factor X (hemin), factor V (NAD), or both for their growth. Haemophilus influenzae is the type species, and is considered to be the most pathogenic. They are associated with many invasive infections including meningitis, epiglottitis, pneumonia, and otitis media. Serotype b is most commonly associated with infections. Haemophilus species isolated from patients in a tertiary care centre in South India were studied. Identification, serotyping and biotyping were done and antibiotic susceptibility test was performed. The incidence of H. influenzae infections in our study was 65.3 cases/100,000 persons. Serotype b was the most common (66.67%), followed by non typeable H.influenzae (NTHi) (25%). Most isolates from adults were type b, while all isolates from pediatric population were non typeable. The most common biotype was type II, followed by type I and type III. Three of 24 isolates were β lactamase producers (12.5%). One isolate was β lactamase negative Ampicillin resistant (BLNAR). Resistance to ampicillin was 16.67%. Resistance to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones was low (4-10%). Co-trimoxazole resistance was found to be very high (75%). All isolates were susceptible to azithromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and meropenem. No isolates of H.influenzae type b were obtained from the paediatric population which may be due to the introduction of Hib vaccine. The increase in resistance to commonly used antibiotics is worrisome, especially penicillins and co-trimoxazole. Use of co-trimoxazole in empirical therapy of upper and lower respiratory tract infections has a high chance of failure in the current scenario.
Haemophilus, serotype b, Non typeable, biotype, BLNAR
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