An acute respiratory disease (SARS-CoV-2, also recognized as COVID-19/2019-nCoV), caused by nCoV created a worldwide emergency. The World Health Organization declared the SARS-CoV-2 as epidemic of international concern on January 2020. After SARS-CoV in 2002 and MERS-CoV in 2012, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 is marked as third highly pathogenic coronavirus of 21st century. Till now, various researches have been conducted, highlighting SARS-CoV-2 as β-coronavirus with high phylogenetic and genomic similarity with bat-CoV, indicating bats as natural reservoir of coronaviruses. It has also been confirmed that SARS-CoV-2 uses the same (ACE2) receptor for host cellular entry as of SARS-CoV, and primarily spread through respiratory pathway. Evidences shows continuous human-to-human viral transfer, with numerous worldwide exported cases. Currently, there is no specific approved drug available for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2, but various anti-parasitic and anti-viral drugs are being investigated. In this review, we have described several possible therapeutic modalities for SARS-CoV-2 infection based on (i) host protease inhibitors to block viral entry into the cell; (ii) gene silencing using siRNA-based RNAi and (iii) type I interferons (IFN1)-based therapeutics have been discussed in detail. Background knowledge on these strategies highlight them as potential therapeutic targets, which could be evaluated on urgent basis to combat COVID-19 epidemic.
SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Origin, Therapeutics, protease inhibitors, gene silencing (siRNA), interferons type I (IFN-1)
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