ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Review Article | Open Access
Vijaya Anand Arumugam1 , Sangeetha Thangavelu1, Zareena Fathah2, Pavithra Ravindran1, Ann Mary Alappat Sanjeev1, Sunantha Babu1, Arun Meyyazhagan3, Mohd. Iqbal Yatoo4, Khan Sharun5, Ruchi Tiwari6, Megha Katare Pandey7, Ranjit Sah8, Ram Chandra9 and Kuldeep Dhama10
1Medical Genetics and Epigenetic Laboratory, Department of Human Genetics and Molecular Biology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore – 641 046, India.
2King’s College London, London, United Kingdom.
3Department of Life Sciences, CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Bengaluru – 560 029, Karnataka, India.
4Division of Veterinary Clinical Complex, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Shuhama, Alusteng Srinagar, Sher-E-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar – 190 006, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
5Division of Surgery, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly- 243 122, Uttar Pradesh, India.
6Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Sciences, UP Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalay Evum Go-Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura – 281 001, Uttar Pradesh, India.
7Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Science, Durg – 491 001, Chhattisgarh, India.
8Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Institute of Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal.
9Department of Microbiology, School of Environmental Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, (A Central University) Vidya Vihar, Raebareli Road, Lucknow – 226 025, Uttar Pradesh, India.
10Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly – 243 122, Uttar Pradesh, India.
J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2020;14(3):1623-1638 | Article Number: 6626
https://doi.org/10.22207/JPAM.14.3.01 | © The Author(s). 2020
Received: 19/08/2020 | Accepted: 03/09/2020 | Published: 17/09/2020
Abstract

Newly emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has now spread across the globe in past few months while affecting 26 million people and leading to more than 0.85 million deaths as on 2nd September, 2020. Severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection increases in COVID-19 patients due to pre-existing health co-morbidities. This mini-review has focused on the three significant co-morbidities viz., heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes, which are posing high health concerns and increased mortality during this ongoing pandemic. The observed co-morbidities have been found to be associated with the increasing risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 critical illness as well as to be associated positively with the worsening of the health condition of COVID-19 suffering individuals resulting in the high risk for mortality. SARS-CoV-2 enters host cell via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors. Regulation of crucial cardiovascular functions and metabolisms like blood pressure and sugar levels are being carried out by ACE2. This might be one of the reasons that contribute to the higher mortality in COVID-19 patients having co-morbidities. Clinical investigations have identified higher levels of creatinine, cardiac troponin I, alanine aminotransferase, NT-proBNP, creatine kinase, D-dimer, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in patients who have succumbed to death from COVID-19 as compared to recovered individuals. More investigations are required to identify the modes behind increased mortality in COVID-19 patients having co-morbidities of heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes. This will enable us to design and develop suitable therapeutic strategies for reducing the mortality. More attention and critical care need to be paid to such high risk patients suffering from co-morbidities during COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords

SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Heart Disease, Hypertension, Diabetes, Pandemic, Co-morbidity

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