Sangeeta Pandey

Amity Institute of Organic Agriculture, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Sector 125, Noida 201313, India.

Abstract

The cellulose is enormoussource of organic carbon on the earth. It has varied industrial applications; the most important of these in 21st century is bio-ethanol production. The cellulose degradation requires extremes of pH and temperature, and thereby it is expensive   and hazardous to the environment. This signifies usage of enzymes for cellulose hydrolysis for its conversion to ethanol.A large number of cellulases have been identified from bacteria and fungi, but there is need of more efficient cellulases. It is observed that majority of microbes defy cultivation under laboratory conditions so the metagenomics offer new avenues in search of novel cellulases, capable of efficient bioconversion of cellulosic materials. Metagenomicsis complementary method to traditional culture-based method, as it allows exhaustive mining of microbial genomes from their habitats. This review covers the current status of cellulase gene retrieved from metagenomes of various environments.

Keywords: Cellulase, Biofuel,Metagenomic library, Function-based screening, Bio-ethanol.