Journal of Pure and Applied MicrobiologyVol. 9 No. 4

Spread of Sporulating Fungi Inside Shisha (Hookah or Waterpipe) and a Recommended way to Reduce Risks

S. M. N. Moustafa1,2* and H. M. A. Abdelzaher1

1Department of Biology, College of Science, Aljouf University, Sakaka, 42421, Saudi Arabia. 2Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Minia University, El-Minia, 61511, Egypt.

Received on 10 April 2015 and accepted on 20 July 2015

 

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, smoking shisha has been steadily spreading among people around the world. This study shed light on the presence of sporulating fungi as a second dimension to the risks of smoking shisha. Paecilomyces lilacinus, Paecilomyces variotii and Penicillium purporogenum were isolated from inner parts of shishas?. These three taxa have a bad reputation in the excretion of mycotoxins and causing similar symptoms of pneumonia. Penicillium purporogenum, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Paecilomyces variotii, Aspergillus niger and Ulocladium utrum were also isolated from air of the tested smoking places. Results showed that the laden air smell of mixture of menthol, eucalyptus oil and methyl salicylate (commercially, Abou Faz), inhibited by 100% growth of fungi isolated from inner structures of shishas?. The laden air smell of mint oil completely inhibited mycelia growth of Paecilomyces lilacinus while it did not affect others. Laden air smell of clove oil reduced amount of conidia and the red secretion of Penicillium purporogenum while it did not affect the rest. Air laden with each of anise, cardamom, eucalyptus and ginger had no effect on the three tested fungi. Application of a mixture of menthol and eucalyptus oils with methyl salicylate reduces risks of fungi circulating within the internal structures of the shisha and not reached by cleaning methods.

Keywords : Paecilomyces lilacinus, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium purporogenum, shisha (hookah & waterpipe), Volatile oils.