Journal of Pure and Applied MicrobiologyVol. 9 No. Special Edition Nov. 2015

Altered El Tor Vibrio cholerae O1 Caused Outbreak of Cholera in the Southern Part of Odisha, India during 2011

Bibhuti Bhusan Pal*, Hemant Kunar Khuntia, Rudra Prasad Jena, Surya Kanta Samal and Santanu Kumar Kar

Microbiology Division, Regional Medical Research Centre (ICMR), Chandrasekarpur, Bhubaneswar-751023, Odisha, India.

Received on 06 February 2015 and accepted on 13 March 2015

 

ABSTRACT

Outbreak of cholera reported during July to October, 2011 from the Mohana block of Gajapati district of Odisha was investigated. Sixty rectal swabs collected from severe diarrhoea patients and 64 water samples were bacteriologically analyzed for the isolation of bacterial pathogens, antibiogram profile and detection of various toxic genes. Bacteriological analysis of rectal swabs and water samples detected V.cholerae O1 Ogawa biotype El Tor. The V. cholerae strains were resistant to streptomycin, erythromycin, ampicillin, furazolidone, co-trimoxazole nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol. The multiplex PCR assay on V. cholerae strains indicated the presence of ctxA and tcpA genes showing biotype El Tor; whereas mismatch amplification of mutation assay (MAMA) PCR assay on clinical and water isolates of V. cholerae revealed that they were El Tor variant carrying ctxB gene of the classical strain. This clearly indicates the homology of clinical and environmental isolates of V.cholerae isolated during the outbreak period. Early reporting enabled the state government to implement control measures to check the spread of the disease. The present findings clearly gives an warning that the altered El Tor V.cholerae O1 strains with classical traits spread in the tribal areas causing cholera outbreak that may repeat in future which needs close monitoring.

Keywords : Cholera outbreak, Altered El Tor V. cholerae, Tribal area, Odisha.