Journal of Pure and Applied MicrobiologyVol. 9 No. Special Edition Nov. 2015

Phyllanthus urinaria Inhibits Drug-Resistant Propionibacterium acnes Growth and P. acnes-Induced IL-8 Production in THP-1 cells

Ju Mi Hyun1, Sang Suk Kim2, Jin Hwa Kim3, Geun Soo Lee3, Jung No Lee4, Jong-Seok Kang1, Jong Seok Baik1, Nam Ho Lee1 and Chang-Gu Hyun1,*

1Cosmetic Sciences Center, Department of Chemistry and Cosmetics, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, Korea. 2Citrus Research Station, National Institute of Horticulture and Herbal Science, Seogwipo 697-943, Korea. 3R & D Center, Hanbul Cosmetics Co., Chungbuk 369-830, Korea. 4R&D Center, CoSeedBioPharm Co., Chungbuk 363-951, Korea.

Received on 27 July 2015 and accepted on 10 October 2015

 

ABSTRACT

Acne treatments are usually employed to inhibit inflammation or kill skin pathogens. However, these remedies can induce side effects such as xerosis cutis and skin irritation if they are used excessively. Therefore, natural products garnered the attention as alternatives to synthetic drugs, particularly those presenting high antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities with no side effects. The antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of Phyllanthus urinaria extract (PUE) against drug-susceptible and drug-resistant skin pathogens have not been reported. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of PUE. We determined the anti-bacterial activities of PUE using the disk diffusion method. Various PUEs (water, 20%, 50%, and 100% ethanolic extracts) showed excellent antibacterial activities against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), which are acne-causing bacteria. In addition, PUE inhibited the production of interleukin (IL)-8 in a dose-dependent manner in P. acnes-induced THP-1 monocytic cells, an indication of its anti-inflammatory effects. In order to determine whether PUE can safely be applied to the human skin, the cytotoxic effects of PUEs were determined by MTT assay in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. PUE exhibited a low cytotoxicity at 10 ?g/mL. The presence of rutin in PUE was determined using HPLC fingerprint. The content of rutin in water, 20%, 50%, and 100% ethanolic extracts was 5.2 mg/g, 1.5 mg/g, 0.7 mg/g, and 0.25 mg/g, respectively. Taken together, our results suggest that PUEs are attractive acne-mitigating candidates for topical application.

Keywords : Acne, drug-resistant skin pathogen, inflammation, Phyllanthus urinaria, Propionibacterium acnes.