Journal of Pure and Applied MicrobiologyVol. 8 No. 6

Effect of Genotype and Growth Regulators in Induction of Embryogenic Callus in Rice

Ahsan A. Kadhimi1,3*, Arshad Naji Alhasnawi1,4, Anizan Isahak2, Mehdi Farshad Ashraf1, Azhar Mohamad5, Febri Doni1, Wan Mohtar Wan Yusoff1 and Che Radziah Che Mohd Zain1*

1School of Biosciences & Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia. 2School of Environmental Science and Natural Resources, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia. 3University of Baghdad, Ministry of Higher Education, Iraq. 4University Presidency, AL- Muthanna University, Iraq. 5 Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Malaysia.

Received on 30 August 2014 and accepted on 29 October 2014



Rice is the primary source of food in many countries of the world and has conducted many studies in order to improve breeding and rice production, especially in the field of plant tissue culture. The aim of this study is to review some of the factors that influence the induction of callus from rice seeds. Of these factors are that genotype and explants source are important parameters in determining the success of rice plant regeneration in tissue culture. The other factor plant hormones, like animal hormones, are relatively small molecules that are effective at low tissue concentrations. The most generally used plant hormones in tissue culture are cytokinins and auxins. Cytokinins are derived from adenine and exert two immediate effects on undifferentiated cells: the stimulation of DNA synthesis and increased cell division. Still studies dealing with the induction of callus of rice and the factors influencing it, such as genotype and growth regulators is not sufficient to reach the best results and therefore it must conduct more studies on these factors in order to reach the best results that serve the breeding and improvement of rice production in quality and quantity.

Keywords : Rice, callus induction, genotype and explants, Plant hormones.