Journal of Pure and Applied MicrobiologyVol. 8 No. 6

Antimicrobial Activity and Bioactive Compounds of Persian Gulf Sea Cucumber (Holothuria leucospilota)

Farideh Namvar1,2*, Alireza Khodavandi3, Fahimeh Alizadeh4, Javad Baharara2, Sadi Bayat5, Mozhgan Soltani6, Rosfarizan Mohamad1,7, Susan Azizi8 and Heshu Sulaiman Rahman9

1Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. 2Research Center for Animal Development Applied Biology, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran. 3Department of Paramedical Sciences, Gachsaran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gachsaran, Iran. 4Department of Microbiology, Yasouj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasouj, Iran. 5Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. 6Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Research and Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. 7Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. 8Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. 9Department of Microbiology and Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Received on 20 July 2014 and accepted on 09 September 2014

 

ABSTRACT

Bioactive compounds of the body wall of the sea cucumber (Holothuria leucospilota) collected from the Persian Gulf were extracted using methanol and analyze separation was determined by GC-MS. Extracts were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and also Candida species by using disk diffusion and broth microdilution susceptibility tests. Efficacy of extract was evaluated against sessile yeast and bacterial cells by the time-dependent killing assay. GC-MS analysis clearly showed the presence of twenty important constituents. The major determined bioactive compound in methanolic extract was fatty acids. The preliminary test showed significant antimicrobial activity for all isolates tested (with zone of inhibition ranging from 7.1 ? 0.56 to 14.1 ? 0.91 mm). The inhibition zones for Candida species tested were ranged from 7.4 ? 0.75 to 14.7 ? 0.46 mm. The MICs value were ranged from 5 ? 0.02 to 80 ? 0.75 mg/ml for bacteria tested, while Candida species were more susceptible to extract and MICs were ranged from 0.75 ? 0.01 to 25 ? 0.90 mg/ml. All isolates tested were showed significant reduction of cells started from 2-6 h incubation. It is also indicated that Candida albicans was more susceptible in terms of decreasing the number of cells after 24 h incubation time in compare to other species.

Keywords : Antimicrobial activity; bioactive compounds; Holothuria leucospilota.